Islamic law prohibits gharar (insecure) in contracts and liquidated compensation provisions are a preferred mechanism for overcoming uncertainties related to contractual damages.  If the contract prevents the client from claiming liquidated damages or if the actual damages are significantly different from those estimated at the time the contract was concluded, the client may claim in court a right to unserured (i.e. effective) compensation. Unaleraled damages are damages whose exact amount has not been previously agreed and is generally determined by the courts. However, the mechanisms for lengthening time are not only to the contractor`s advantage. If there was no such mechanism and a delay that was not due to the contractor, the contractor could no longer be required to complete the work before the completion date and would only have to complete the work at an “appropriate” time. Without an enforceable completion date, the client would lose the opportunity to claim liquidated damages for other delays attributable to the contractor. For a discussion on whether it is necessary – or appropriate – to include “as liquidated damage and not as punishment” and for another approach, see Ken Adams` play “As Liquidated Damages and Not As a Penalty “. In Australia, the definition of liquidated injury applies to cases where, in the event of non-performance of a primary provision, an infringement of the first party or a benefit to the second party is imposed by a secondary security to the main provision (i.e., it should not be an offence).  The Court found that the amount of compensation liquidated was not a penalty because the rate reflected an actual estimate of the damage suffered. The liquidated injury clause should be used to define the exact amount of money made available to the aggrieved party under a broken contract.
As a general rule, civil regimes impose less stringent restrictions on liquidated damage. Article 1226 of the French Civil Code provides, for example, the penal clause, a variant of liquidated damages, which combines compensatory and coercive elements. Judges can adjust excessive penalties, but such clauses are generally non-hazard in French law.  While liquidated damages can be used in most types of contracts, they are most often present in real estate contracts.